- Do you know how much the highest paid male football player wins and the highest paid female football player? Cristiano Ronaldo wins 93 million euros while Alex Morgan “only” 2.8 million euros
- What are the minimum wages in the NBA and WNBA? In the 2015-16 season, the NBA had a minimum wage of 500,000 euros, for the 37,000 of the WNBA.
- How many IOC presidents have been in history? Any. The nine presidents that have existed since Demetrius Vikelas (named in 1894) to Thomas Bach (in office since 2013) have been men.
- Do you know the difference in income between an ATP ‘Top 100’ tennis player and his WTA counterpart? An ATP ‘Top 100’ player earns an average of 150,000 euros more per year than a WTA ‘Top 100’.
- How much money does the male golf circuit award? And the feminine? In 2015, the men’s circuit allocated 322 million euros for prizes, for the 57 million female circuit.
- How many of the 66 Spanish sports federations are presided over by women at the moment? Only 3:Lifeguard, Boules and Sailing
- How much do the national teams of women’s and men’s soccer world champions enter? Germany added 35 million euros to win the 2014 World Cup and the US ‘only’ 2 million to win the 2015.
- Total income: What is the difference between the athlete who enters and his female counterpart? In 2016 Cristiano Ronaldo entered 85 million euros, for the 27 of Serena Williams.
- What is the maximum distance in the men’s and women’s swimming events in the Olympic Games? 1500 meters in the case of men and 800 in the case of women Can not swim the same distance?
- Spanish flag-bearers in the Olympic Games How many there have been? Only 2: Infanta Cristina de Borbón in Seoul 88 and Isabel Fernandez, in Athens 2004.
Defining the concept of gender (male / female) requires distinguishing it from the concept of sex, which refers to the set of biological differences between male and female; it’s natural. Gender is the trait attributed to each sex, depends on factors acquired; is cultural and is changing according to historical and social dimensions. The fundamental difference seems to be placed in an intrinsic value of the feminine and the masculine, based on deeper issues of the feminine and the masculine, based on deeper questions, although women have the possibility of accessing more and more to tasks considered specific to men, there continues to be at some point a “reserved male domain” less excluded: politics, religious, business responsibilities; spaces that could be thought of as power and decision making.
Stereotypes are based on beliefs, preconceived ideas and expectations with which to evaluate people’s behaviour. Gender stereotypes “are responsible for the differential treatment that women and men are subjected to, from the beginning of childhood, by those responsible for socialization”. It responds to different characteristics at different times, which makes it possible to assume that it is not so immutable as it is sometimes described. This is reinforced by the idea that it also functions as a factor of social control: to maintain stereotypes is to keep fixed the roles of men and women.
Analysing children’s play, this being the form of learning par excellence, and always speaking in terms of general characteristics, while girls play “to the dolls” (future role of mother), children “to the cars”; they have a greater offer of expressive and individual activities, they, of sport and group activities; they indoors or in enclosed spaces (future home) “to the house”; them on the street or in open spaces, “on the ball”. These children’s learning guides the future of the adult and it is at this stage that the representations of the “feminine” and the “masculine” are forged. The stronger and more structured these mandates, the more difficult it is to modify them.
By the table shown down and the essay before we can conclude that roles are expected and created
It is just natural that women want kinds one day. It is their hormones. No matter if they would like to have children or not, at a certain critical age, the social environment is going to worry about their future. ₁ Because as a women without a family as a matter of fact you are going to end up alone and depressed. Huge regrets and a lot of cats. Of course.
But the perspective is changing completely when disabled women are considered. Suddenly the natural reproductive drive, the maternal nature is not so fundamental anymore. As they are missing important female attributes. Their gender is questions in general. The stereotype of disabled women indicates a lack of attractiveness. They learn from very early on that they will not be desired; the role of a mother and wife is beyond question. This impacts also the question of reproductive rights. It is way easier to get a late abortion or sterilization than the actual support to carry a baby. In contrast to able-bodied women, disabled girls are raised to be strong and independent- because they will not marry anyhow.
By this example we can see that the connection between gender and naturalism is a perfidy networked structure. In fact, there is no need for disabled women to get children; they will not be discriminated against if they do not. All the same for migrant women. Finally only a certain part of women are meant to be “female” and the natural explanation is simple but strong legitimations for the existing hierarchy of power.
References and further Information
Köbsell, S. (2007) Behinderung und Geschlecht – Versuch einer vorläufigen Bilanz aus Sicht der deutschen Behindertenbewegung
Höfs, M: (2007) Kritische Männerforschung und Behinderung
As I wrote in the last article, intercourse is still regarded to be the one and only sex. Such a normative discourse about sex poses pressure, especially for women to have sex even if they don’t really want it. Or other than that do not really like it. The inequality between the sexes is strongly displayed in sexuality and sexual satisfaction. For example, young women are more likely to depend on the satisfaction of their partner, compared to young men relying on their own sexual satisfaction. They also do engage in active oral sex more often even if they do not really want to. ₁ To satisfy their partner. Of course there is the bigger picture about patriarchy, power and sociality but here we want to concentrate on the processes of naturalization. I do not want to deny that there are certain biological differences between the sexes, yet they are rather tiny compared to the social and psychological consequences resulting out of it. In turn, underlying pretended naturalizations encourage and legitimize differences which must not exist.
Considering sexuality, a certain correlation between the nature of sex and the psychological disposition is assumed. ₂ Women are seen to be the receiving part of the coitus. She is passive and does not have such a strong desire. She wants a child and her nature is meant for that. While men are giving subjects with a strong drive to spread their sperm to reproduce their genes. I am quite surprised how common that idea still is. In articles about the question of who has more sex and why or simply when men try to justify why they cheat on their girlfriend (Yes, it is stupid but people still do so). That young women in America qualify good sex by the absences of pain while young men don´t, as Peggy Orenstein cites a big U.S. research, is worth discussing. ₃
Therefore, language should be considered in the first place. There is an urgent need to find appropriate words for sexual organs. In German there are very few words for our sexual organs or otherwise they are so deprecate that you don´t really want to use them while you have sex. Especially for Woman’s sexual organs this is a problem. I am constantly surprised how many women, even adult women cannot tell you the difference between Vagina and Vulva. But if you want to tell somebody what you would like them to do with you. You should be able to name it. Right?
References and further Information
₁ https://www.ted.com/talks/peggy_orenstein_what_young_women_believe_about_their_own_ sexual_pleasure#t-300836
₂ Wrede, B. (2000). Was ist Sexualität?
Durex: Studie zum Sexleben der Deutschen (http://www.presseportal.de/pm/115990/3253390)
Sex. People making love.
No matter if you imagined an old couple or a random on-night stand fuck, the chances that intercourse (precisely penetrative sex), was part the image are pretty high. On your mind was probably the stereotypical idea we have about sex: A social act between two, a female and a male agent. Maybe you came up with a completely different scene, yet we can still assume that most people would have thought of exactly this image. Even if a person prefers other possible sexual interactions, other sex where no penis or vibrator needs to be part of the game. Among others Oralsex. Or for instance Cybersex.
Although there is such a beautiful variety of sex, our cultural understanding of sex prescribes a simplified idea of it as it being The question we should ask ourselves is how our construction of sex as the notion of intercourse – and nothing more or less – had the chance to become such a normalised script up to now. Why does it remain so unchallenged?
The intuitive understanding of sex as intercourse gains support on different levels. A very strong and powerful underlying concept is that of naturalization. Heterosexual penetrative sex is mostly considered to be sex because it is in fact the only one leading to procreation of the human species. An in-depth qualitative study with heterosexual males and females in Newzealand they got closer to the question, what makes penetrative sex so natural. A lot of them described intercourse as a „natural“ notion to want In this sense, male- female sex relations were depicted as fitting to each other. In other words, a lot of people tended to interpret it as a natural drive which is biologically rooted by the need of reproduction. These strong naturalization is then proven by their own desire and lust they feel. Even though it was hard for some of them to describe, why (apart from biology oring and desire) people perform intercourse.
One the one hand, such naturalistic and reproductive reasoning implies strong heteronormativity and at the same time legitimizes penetrative penis-vagina sex to be the ideal sex. Forgetting that all other sexual interaction as well as masturbation could also be seen as “real“ sex. Moreover, it is a social imperative. People just have Sex. We just know that people- in a certain age- do intercourse. Normalization of intercourse is linked to expectations to fulfill the norm to be normal. At this point it can pose pressure. Women tend twice as much as men to engage in intercourse eventough they do not really feel like it. ₃
Thus, sex as a heterosexual intercourse is socially normalized. This means that this concept is so deeply entrenched in our culture that we do not really come to the point to question it. That heterosexuality is still highly normative is no secret, bearing in mind it is that gay marriage and linked to it the right to adopt became officially legal in Germany literally today. It is surprising how narrow and restricted our sex seems nowadays, contrary to our perceptions of being a fully liberated society.
References and further information
₁ Baban, A. and David, H. P. (1994) ‘Romanian Women’s Perceptions of Sexuality, Partner Relations, and Reproductive Behaviour during the Ceausescu Era’
₂ Gavey, McPhillips & Braun (1999)` Interruptus Coitus: Heterosexual Accountings for intercours.´
₃ Sprecher et al., 1994; O’Sullivan & Allgeier, 1998
When I was in Germany and I had free time I usually watched my favourite Spanish tv program called “El Hormiguero”. Sometimes there is a collaborator called Mario Vaquerizo . Is a famous Spanish personality and singer at his 40s and husband from a famous singer called Alaska. He always wearing a gothic-punk style, with leather black trousers and black t-shirts and jackets, usually wears black-eyed shadows and has long black hair. What can be said to be a person from the gothic tribe. What its more famous about his marriage and career is his personality and the way he acts. He has an extrovert personality, a talkative person saying a lot of jokes and with an outburst of laughter. Is impossible not to laugh when he does it. But most characteristic is how he acted. That is when he is a subject of study for categorizing sex and sexuality. He walks very stylistic, near jumping, sometimes with boats with heels. He doesn’t walk like a man, as John Travolta in “Saturday Night Fever”. Not only that. How he expresses and speaks can’t be considered properly as a man if we consider the gender stereotypes. He moves like a “woman” like shake his hair, talk about him as “her” and use Spanish vulgar adjectives like “cari” and “nena”, used by women. Is like a gothic woman with a man body.
By his aspects and features it can be said that he is a man, but how he acts and speaks its properly from a woman. It can be said that he is a stereotype of gay people, a man that acts as a woman. As information, he considered himself as bisexual, but not a normal bisexual, a “theoretical bisexual”. “I’ve always said that I’m a theoretical bisexual, because if I see a guy who seems handsome I say it without any problem. Being surrounded by homosexuals, the desire between men is part of my life, but I think not today I get the boys to go with some to bed. I cannot imagine having them in love and sexual situation, so I am in theory but not in practice. “
When I was doing my Erasmus in Germany I attended a conference in Freie Universität Berlin about gender politics. Is my second day there. I’m a little tired of so many panels and the conference is going to end and I was sat listening to them when suddenly one of the assistants stand up and going outside. I guess to the toilet. This person is my object of study in my ethnography work because it calls me my attention. The first time I though it’s a girl. She has short-cut blond hair, what can be considered as a boys’ haircut. If you think about that, short hair nowadays doesn’t mean a completely masculine hair curt. This can be also a girls’ haircut, as the famous pixie cut that many famous people wear as Emma Watson and Michelle Williams. Then I’m moving to the face, It’s something …androgen. I was sure that it’s a woman, but it also has like masculine features, hard features and a blue-eyes glance that remembered me to a man. Then I passed to the clothes. She is wearing a white T-shirt with denim overalls. Looking at her overall, it seems at the first time she is a woman, but when I looked at her deeply, a man appears in my man. It’s like have two genders at the same time.
As conclusion, think that one has a gender caused the way it dresses or look or have the haircut, just have what is expected from your sex, doesn’t mean that you belong to that gender. Times changes and we pass from considerate trousers as masculine and from boys are now for girls too. We should take in mind that there are not things such as clothes or actions that are associated to one sex. Nowadays this can be for both and equality start by that.
In the last four decades, the Spanish LGBT community has gone from hiding to recognition. In 1970, a group of activists led by Armand de Fluvià, Francesc Francino and later Amanda Klein, secretly founded the Spanish Homosexual Liberation Movement. Four decades later, the claims have evolved, but will remain until the collective reaches full equality in all areas of life. In any case, Jesus Generelo, president of the FELGTB, admits that “Spain has completely rolled back the tortilla: from a society that stigmatized sexual, gender or family diversity, we have come to the stigma has moved to those who discriminate. ” June 26, 1977, germ of Pride. Some 5,000 people went to the Ramblas in Barcelona to defend LGBT rights. They demanded an amnesty for those detained based on their sexual orientation or gender identity, who were not equated with other political prisoners.
-26 June 1977, germ of Pride. Some 5,000 people went to the Ramblas in Barcelona to defend LGBT rights. They demanded an amnesty for those detained based on their sexual orientation or gender identity, who were not equated with other political prisoners.
Just as in the Stonewall (New York) riots of June 28, 1969, the pride of the Pride, at the 77th demonstration, the trans women “stood in the front line, giving the face,” recalls Amanda Rodriguez, a member of the FELGTB.
-31 January 1979, Law of Danger. With the entry into force of the repeal of part of this Francoist law, the ‘homosexual acts’ ceased to be officially persecuted. But until 83, no other stigmatizing law was modified, which regulated the ‘public scandal’, which was used to repress homosexuality and transsexuality recurrently.
-June 30, 2005, marriage approval. With 187 votes in favor and 147 against, the Congress of Deputies gave the green light to the amendment of the Civil Code to open the marriage to same-sex couples. The now-defunct activist Pedro Zerolo was one of the great supporters – among others, like Marisa Castro – that the new legislation went ahead. Finally, on July 3 came into force and Spain became the third country in the world to legalize equal marriage, behind the Netherlands and Belgium and ahead of Canada, which would do so only a few days later. Just eight days after the entry into force of the law, Carlos Baturín and Emilio Menéndez were united in marriage in the Town Hall of Tres Cantos on July 11, 2005.
-March 5, 2007, gender identity. When this law was approved, many trans persons could access the name and sex change in the DNI without the obligation of surgical intervention. More than ten years after its entry into force – March 17, 2007 – the group claims to update legislation to recognize trans children or to include the so-called ‘free self-determination of gender’, without the need for medical diagnosis and treatment. Only a state law would ensure the equality of all trans people. Although different communities like Madrid have developed their own rules, only a state law would ensure the equality of all trans people, regardless of their place of residence.
-May 4, 2017, Equality Act. The FELGTB registered in the Congress of Deputies a bill against discrimination and in favour of social equality of LGBT people. The text includes measures in different areas such as health, education or work. Also in this case, different autonomous parliaments have taken the lead. For the same reason, a law of Spanish rank would eradicate territorial inequalities.
Hi, my name is Paula and I had my Erasmus in Potsdam last semester. I study International Studies, and this subject is about organisations. But above all, is about sex and gender. And above all, is how we are categorizing them in international organizations.
Human rights are earned from the bottom up. Now, about LGTBI rights, there is a paradox that we do not find in other areas of human rights. It is difficult to think of another area related to rights and freedoms in which there is so much contrast between what the groups at the national level in some countries have achieved with their struggle and the situation in which LGBT people in other places. We live in a world where same-sex relationships can be punished even with the death penalty and where same-sex people can marry and have offspring and transsexuals can enrol the gender with which they identify.
This disparity is due in large part to the absence of international standards about discrimination based on the sexual orientation and gender identity of individuals. So far, the international bodies responsible for human rights have not sufficiently addressed the situation of LGBTI persons. Even the European Court of Human Rights itself continues to pronounce itself as timidly as it is questionable on such important issues as egalitarian marriage or the pathologizing of transsexuality. At the UN level, the only notable text that we find is the declaration of 12 United Nations entities to end violence and discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex people adopted in 2015 and that, if well implied a small advance in the positioning of these entities, its real impact has been very scarce.
In short, the international community has left the LGTBI collective to its fate, and its inactivity sometimes clashes with complicity with governments that repress and promote violence and discrimination. In this context, the appointment by the United Nations Human Rights Council of an Independent Expert on protection against violence and discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation or gender identity, which the reluctance of some African, Asian and Eastern European countries in November last year.
In addition, the Council specifically requested the independent expert to evaluate the implementation of international human rights instruments to overcome discrimination and violence based on sexual orientation or gender identity, to raise public awareness of this problem, to dialogue with States and international agencies to advance this issue, to promote good practices in the implementation of measures that contribute to the protection of the collective, to identify multiple forms of violence and discrimination and to support counselling and technical assistance to promote initiatives to combat violence and discrimination.
Of course, many issues of vital importance for the group remain – I personally miss, as a matter of priority, a more determined defence of the right to family life without discrimination. However, this report should be welcomed as a first effort to advance the international recognition of LGTBI rights, and it is very important and necessary for civil society to follow up on the Expert’s work so that his work the greatest and best possible impact. In this regard, it is important to emphasize that the Expert calls on civil society groups and organizations to submit their contributions for their second report to the General Assembly through their email firstname.lastname@example.org.