The Nature of Being

rethinking the facts of life


paula lopez fernandez

The 10 most unfair inequalities between men and women athletes

  1. Do you know how much the highest paid male football player wins and the highest paid female football player?                                                                                       Cristiano Ronaldo wins 93 million euros while Alex Morgan “only” 2.8 million euros
  2. What are the minimum wages in the NBA and WNBA?                                                    In the 2015-16 season, the NBA had a minimum wage of 500,000 euros, for the 37,000 of the WNBA.
  3. How many IOC presidents have been in history?                                                           Any. The nine presidents that have existed since Demetrius Vikelas (named in 1894) to Thomas Bach (in office since 2013) have been men.
  4. Do you know the difference in income between an ATP ‘Top 100’ tennis player and his WTA counterpart?                                                                                                             An ATP ‘Top 100’ player earns an average of 150,000 euros more per year than a WTA ‘Top 100’.
  5. How much money does the male golf circuit award? And the feminine?                     In 2015, the men’s circuit allocated 322 million euros for prizes, for the 57 million female circuit.
  6.  How many of the 66 Spanish sports federations are presided over by women at the moment?                                                                                                                                Only 3:Lifeguard, Boules and Sailing
  7. How much do the national teams of women’s and men’s soccer world champions enter?                                                                                                                                Germany added 35 million euros to win the 2014 World Cup and the US ‘only’ 2 million to win the 2015.
  8. Total income: What is the difference between the athlete who enters and his female counterpart?                                                                                                                                In 2016 Cristiano Ronaldo entered 85 million euros, for the 27 of Serena Williams.
  9. What is the maximum distance in the men’s and women’s swimming events in the Olympic Games?                                                                                                                    1500 meters in the case of men and 800 in the case of women Can not swim the same distance?
  10. Spanish flag-bearers in the Olympic Games How many there have been?                       Only 2: Infanta Cristina de Borbón in Seoul 88 and Isabel Fernandez, in Athens 2004.

gender role

Defining the concept of gender (male / female) requires distinguishing it from the concept of sex, which refers to the set of biological differences between male and female; it’s natural. Gender is the trait attributed to each sex, depends on factors acquired; is cultural and is changing according to historical and social dimensions. The fundamental difference seems to be placed in an intrinsic value of the feminine and the masculine, based on deeper issues of the feminine and the masculine, based on deeper questions, although women have the possibility of accessing more and more to tasks considered specific to men, there continues to be at some point a “reserved male domain” less excluded: politics, religious, business responsibilities; spaces that could be thought of as power and decision making.

Stereotypes are based on beliefs, preconceived ideas and expectations with which to evaluate people’s behaviour. Gender stereotypes “are responsible for the differential treatment that women and men are subjected to, from the beginning of childhood, by those responsible for socialization”. It responds to different characteristics at different times, which makes it possible to assume that it is not so immutable as it is sometimes described. This is reinforced by the idea that it also functions as a factor of social control: to maintain stereotypes is to keep fixed the roles of men and women.

Analysing children’s play, this being the form of learning par excellence, and always speaking in terms of general characteristics, while girls play “to the dolls” (future role of mother), children “to the cars”; they have a greater offer of expressive and individual activities, they, of sport and group activities; they indoors or in enclosed spaces (future home) “to the house”; them on the street or in open spaces, “on the ball”. These children’s learning guides the future of the adult and it is at this stage that the representations of the “feminine” and the “masculine” are forged. The stronger and more structured these mandates, the more difficult it is to modify them.

By the table shown down and the essay before we can conclude that roles are expected and created


Theoretical bisexual?

When I was in Germany and I had free time I usually watched my favourite Spanish tv program called “El Hormiguero”. Sometimes there is a collaborator called Mario Vaquerizo . Is a famous Spanish personality and singer at his 40s and husband from a famous singer called Alaska. He always wearing a gothic-punk style, with leather black trousers and black t-shirts and jackets, usually wears black-eyed shadows and has long black hair. What can be said to be a person from the gothic tribe. What its more famous about his marriage and career is his personality and the way he acts. He has an extrovert personality, a talkative person saying a lot of jokes and with an outburst of laughter. Is impossible not to laugh when he does it. But most characteristic is how he acted. That is when he is a subject of study for categorizing sex and sexuality. He walks very stylistic, near jumping, sometimes with boats with heels. He doesn’t walk like a man, as John Travolta in “Saturday Night Fever”. Not only that. How he expresses and speaks can’t be considered properly as a man if we consider the gender stereotypes. He moves like a “woman” like shake his hair, talk about him as “her” and use Spanish vulgar adjectives like “cari” and “nena”, used by women. Is like a gothic woman with a man body.

By his aspects and features it can be said that he is a man, but how he acts and speaks its properly from a woman. It can be said that he is a stereotype of gay people, a man that acts as a woman. As information, he considered himself as bisexual, but not a normal bisexual, a “theoretical bisexual”. “I’ve always said that I’m a theoretical bisexual, because if I see a guy who seems handsome I say it without any problem. Being surrounded by homosexuals, the desire between men is part of my life, but I think not today I get the boys to go with some to bed. I cannot imagine having them in love and sexual situation, so I am in theory but not in practice. “

My ethnography case

When I was doing my Erasmus in Germany I attended a conference in Freie Universität Berlin about gender politics. Is my second day there. I’m a little tired of so many panels and the conference is going to end and I was sat listening to them when suddenly one of the assistants stand up and going outside. I guess to the toilet. This person is my object of study in my ethnography work because it calls me my attention. The first time I though it’s a girl. She has short-cut blond hair, what can be considered as a boys’ haircut. If you think about that, short hair nowadays doesn’t mean a completely masculine hair curt. This can be also a girls’ haircut, as the famous pixie cut that many famous people wear as Emma Watson and Michelle Williams. Then I’m moving to the face, It’s something …androgen. I was sure that it’s a woman, but it also has like masculine features, hard features and a blue-eyes glance that remembered me to a man. Then I passed to the clothes. She is wearing a white T-shirt with denim overalls. Looking at her overall, it seems at the first time she is a woman, but when I looked at her deeply, a man appears in my man. It’s like have two genders at the same time.

As conclusion, think that one has a gender caused the way it dresses or look or have the haircut, just have what is expected from your sex, doesn’t mean that you belong to that gender. Times changes and we pass from considerate trousers as masculine and from boys are now for girls too. We should take in mind that there are not things such as clothes or actions that are associated to one sex. Nowadays this can be for both and equality start by that.

Spanish homosexuals: 40 years of repression and activism drawing the rainbow

In the last four decades, the Spanish LGBT community has gone from hiding to recognition. In 1970, a group of activists led by Armand de Fluvià, Francesc Francino and later Amanda Klein, secretly founded the Spanish Homosexual Liberation Movement. Four decades later, the claims have evolved, but will remain until the collective reaches full equality in all areas of life. In any case, Jesus Generelo, president of the FELGTB, admits that “Spain has completely rolled back the tortilla: from a society that stigmatized sexual, gender or family diversity, we have come to the stigma has moved to those who discriminate. ” June 26, 1977, germ of Pride. Some 5,000 people went to the Ramblas in Barcelona to defend LGBT rights. They demanded an amnesty for those detained based on their sexual orientation or gender identity, who were not equated with other political prisoners.

-26 June 1977, germ of Pride. Some 5,000 people went to the Ramblas in Barcelona to defend LGBT rights. They demanded an amnesty for those detained based on their sexual orientation or gender identity, who were not equated with other political prisoners.

Just as in the Stonewall (New York) riots of June 28, 1969, the pride of the Pride, at the 77th demonstration, the trans women “stood in the front line, giving the face,” recalls Amanda Rodriguez, a member of the FELGTB.

-31 January 1979, Law of Danger. With the entry into force of the repeal of part of this Francoist law, the ‘homosexual acts’ ceased to be officially persecuted. But until 83, no other stigmatizing law was modified, which regulated the ‘public scandal’, which was used to repress homosexuality and transsexuality recurrently.

-June 30, 2005, marriage approval. With 187 votes in favor and 147 against, the Congress of Deputies gave the green light to the amendment of the Civil Code to open the marriage to same-sex couples. The now-defunct activist Pedro Zerolo was one of the great supporters – among others, like Marisa Castro – that the new legislation went ahead. Finally, on July 3 came into force and Spain became the third country in the world to legalize equal marriage, behind the Netherlands and Belgium and ahead of Canada, which would do so only a few days later. Just eight days after the entry into force of the law, Carlos Baturín and Emilio Menéndez were united in marriage in the Town Hall of Tres Cantos on July 11, 2005.

-March 5, 2007, gender identity. When this law was approved, many trans persons could access the name and sex change in the DNI without the obligation of surgical intervention. More than ten years after its entry into force – March 17, 2007 – the group claims to update legislation to recognize trans children or to include the so-called ‘free self-determination of gender’, without the need for medical diagnosis and treatment. Only a state law would ensure the equality of all trans people. Although different communities like Madrid have developed their own rules, only a state law would ensure the equality of all trans people, regardless of their place of residence.

-May 4, 2017, Equality Act. The FELGTB registered in the Congress of Deputies a bill against discrimination and in favour of social equality of LGBT people. The text includes measures in different areas such as health, education or work. Also in this case, different autonomous parliaments have taken the lead. For the same reason, a law of Spanish rank would eradicate territorial inequalities.

Hello and Sexuality today

Hi, my name is Paula and I had my Erasmus in Potsdam last semester. I study International Studies, and this subject is about organisations. But above all, is about sex and gender. And above all, is how we are categorizing them in international organizations.

Human rights are earned from the bottom up. Now, about LGTBI rights, there is a paradox that we do not find in other areas of human rights. It is difficult to think of another area related to rights and freedoms in which there is so much contrast between what the groups at the national level in some countries have achieved with their struggle and the situation in which LGBT people in other places. We live in a world where same-sex relationships can be punished even with the death penalty and where same-sex people can marry and have offspring and transsexuals can enrol the gender with which they identify.

This disparity is due in large part to the absence of international standards about discrimination based on the sexual orientation and gender identity of individuals. So far, the international bodies responsible for human rights have not sufficiently addressed the situation of LGBTI persons. Even the European Court of Human Rights itself continues to pronounce itself as timidly as it is questionable on such important issues as egalitarian marriage or the pathologizing of transsexuality. At the UN level, the only notable text that we find is the declaration of 12 United Nations entities to end violence and discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex people adopted in 2015 and that, if well implied a small advance in the positioning of these entities, its real impact has been very scarce.

In short, the international community has left the LGTBI collective to its fate, and its inactivity sometimes clashes with complicity with governments that repress and promote violence and discrimination. In this context, the appointment by the United Nations Human Rights Council of an Independent Expert on protection against violence and discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation or gender identity, which the reluctance of some African, Asian and Eastern European countries in November last year.

In addition, the Council specifically requested the independent expert to evaluate the implementation of international human rights instruments to overcome discrimination and violence based on sexual orientation or gender identity, to raise public awareness of this problem, to dialogue with States and international agencies to advance this issue, to promote good practices in the implementation of measures that contribute to the protection of the collective, to identify multiple forms of violence and discrimination and to support counselling and technical assistance to promote initiatives to combat violence and discrimination.

Of course, many issues of vital importance for the group remain – I personally miss, as a matter of priority, a more determined defence of the right to family life without discrimination. However, this report should be welcomed as a first effort to advance the international recognition of LGTBI rights, and it is very important and necessary for civil society to follow up on the Expert’s work so that his work the greatest and best possible impact. In this regard, it is important to emphasize that the Expert calls on civil society groups and organizations to submit their contributions for their second report to the General Assembly through their email

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